The Mental Disorder Known As Schizophrenia

The Mental Disorder Known as​ Schizophrenia
A person experiencing untreated schizophrenia is​ typically characterized as​ demonstrating disorganized thinking,​ and​ as​ experiencing delusions or​ auditory hallucinations. ​
Although the​ disorder is​ primarily thought to​ affect cognition,​ it​ can also contribute to​ chronic problems with behavior and​ emotion. ​
Due to​ the​ many possible combinations of​ symptoms,​ there is​ ongoing and​ heated debate about whether the​ diagnosis necessarily or​ adequately describes a​ disorder,​ or​ alternatively whether it​ might represent a​ number of​ disorders. ​
For this reason,​ Eugen Bleuler deliberately called the​ disease the​ schizophrenias,​ plural,​ when he coined the​ present name.
Schizophrenia is​ a​ psychiatric diagnosis that describes a​ mental disorder characterized by impairments in​ the​ perception or​ expression of​ reality and​ by significant social or​ occupational dysfunction.
Diagnosis is​ based on​ the​ selfreported experiences of​ the​ patient,​ in​ combination with secondary signs observed by a​ psychiatrist,​ clinical psychologist or​ other competent clinician. ​
There is​ no objective biological test for schizophrenia,​ though studies suggest that genetics,​ neurobiology and​ social environment are important contributing factors.
Current research into the​ development of​ the​ disorder often focuses on​ the​ role of​ neurobiology,​ although a​ reliable and​ identifiable organic cause has not been found. ​
In the​ absence of​ objective laboratory tests to​ confirm the​ diagnosis,​ some question the​ legitimacy of​ schizophrenias status as​ a​ disease.
The term schizophrenia translates roughly as​ shattered mind,​ and​ comes from the​ Greek σχίζω schizo,​ to​ split or​ to​ divide and​ φρήν phrēn,​ mind. ​
Despite its etymology,​ schizophrenia is​ not synonymous with dissociative identity disorder,​ also known as​ multiple personality disorder or​ split personality; in​ popular culture the​ two are often confused. ​
Although schizophrenia often leads to​ social or​ occupational dysfunction,​ there is​ little association of​ the​ illness with a​ predisposition toward aggressive behavior.
Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia are highly likely to​ be diagnosed with other disorders. ​
The lifetime prevalence of​ substance abuse disorders is​ typically around 40%. ​
Comorbidity is​ also high with clinical depression,​ anxiety disorders,​ social problems,​ and​ a​ generally decreased life expectancy is​ also present. ​
Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia typically live 1012 years less than their healthy counterparts,​ owing to​ increased physical health problems and​ a​ large suicide rate.

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