Biotechnology Timeline Important Events And Discoveries In Biotechnology

Biotechnology Timeline Important Events And Discoveries In Biotechnology



1977:

The Age of​ biotechnology arrives with “somatostatin” - a​ human growth hormone-releasing inhibitory factor, the first human protein​ manufactured in​ bacteria by Genentech, Inc. a​ synthetic, recombinant gene was used to​ clone a​ protein​ for​ the first time.

1978:

Genentech, Inc. and​ The City of​ Hope National Medical Center announce the successful laboratory production​ of​ human insulin​ using recombinant DNA technology. Hutchinson​ and​ Edgell show it​ is​ possible to​ introduce specific mutations at​ specific sites in​ a​ DNA molecule.

1979:

Sir Walter Bodmer suggests a​ way of​ using DNA technology to​ find gene markers to​ show up specific genetic diseases and​ their carriers. John Baxter reports cloning the gene for​ human growth hormone.

1980:

The prokaryote model, E. coli, is​ used to​ produce insulin​ and​ other medicine, in​ human form. Researchers successfully introduce a​ human gene - one that codes for​ the protein​ interferon- into a​ bacterium. The U.S. patent for​ gene cloning is​ awarded to​ Cohen and​ Boyer.

1981:

Scientists at​ Ohio University produce the first transgenic animals by transferring genes from other animals into mice. The first gene-synthesizing machines are developed. Chinese scientists successfully clone a​ golden carp fish.

1982:

Genentech, Inc. receives approval from the Food and​ Drug Administration​ to​ market genetically engineered human insulin. Applied Biosystems, Inc. introduces the first commercial gas phase protein​ sequencer.

1983:

The polymerase chain​ reaction​ is​ invented by Kary B Mullis. The first artificial chromosome is​ synthesized, and​ the first genetic markers for​ specific inherited diseases are found.

1984:

Chiron​ Corp. announces the first cloning and​ sequencing of​ the entire human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genome. Alec Jeffreys introduces technique for​ DNA fingerprinting to​ identify individuals. The first genetically engineered vaccine is​ developed.

1985:

Cetus Corporation's develops GeneAmp polymerase chain​ reaction​ (PCR) technology, which could generate billions of​ copies of​ a​ targeted gene sequence in​ only hours. Scientists find a​ gene marker for​ cystic fibrosis on​ chromosome number 7.

1986:

The first genetically engineered human vaccine - Chiron's Recombivax HB - is​ approved for​ the prevention​ of​ hepatitis B. a​ regiment of​ scientists and​ technicians at​ Caltech and​ Applied Biosystems, Inc. invented the automated DNA fluorescence sequencer.

1987:

The first outdoor tests on​ a​ genetically engineered bacterium are allowed. it​ inhibits frost formation​ on​ plants. Genentech's tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), sold as​ Activase, is​ approved as​ a​ treatment for​ heart attacks.

1988:

Harvard molecular geneticists Philip Leder and​ Timothy Stewart awarded the first patent for​ a​ genetically altered animal, a​ mouse that is​ highly susceptible to​ breast cancer

1989:

UC Davis scientists develop a​ recombinant vaccine against the deadly rinderpest virus. The human genome project is​ set up, a​ collaboration​ between scientists from countries around the world to​ work out the whole of​ the human genetic code.

1990:

The first gene therapy takes place, on​ a​ four-year-old girl with an​ immune-system disorder called ADA deficiency. The human genome project is​ formally launched.

1991:

Mary-Claire King, of​ the University of​ California, Berkeley, finds evidence that a​ gene on​ chromosome 17 causes the inherited form of​ breast cancer and​ also increases the risk of​ ovarian cancer. Tracey the first transgenic sheep is​ born.

1992:

The first liver xenotransplant from one type of​ animal to​ another is​ carried out successfully. Chiron's Proleukin​ is​ approved for​ the treatment of​ renal cell cancer.

1993:

The FDA declares that genetically engineered foods are "not inherently dangerous" and​ do not require special regulation. Chiron's Betaseron​ is​ approved as​ the first treatment for​ multiple sclerosis in​ 20 years.

1994:

The first genetically engineered food product, the Flavr Savr tomato, gained FDA approval. The first breast cancer gene is​ discovered. Genentech's Nutropin​ is​ approved for​ the treatment of​ growth hormone deficiency.

1995:

Researchers at​ Duke University Medical Center transplanted hearts from genetically altered pigs into baboons, proving that cross-species operations are possible. The bacterium Haemophilus influenzae is​ the first living organism in​ the world to​ have its entire genome sequenced.

1996:

Biogen's Avonex is​ approved for​ the treatment of​ multiple sclerosis. The discovery of​ a​ gene associated with Parkinson's disease provides an​ important new avenue of​ research into the cause and​ potential treatment of​ the debilitating neurological ailment.

1997:

Researchers at​ Scotland's Roslin​ Institute report that they have cloned a​ sheep--named Dolly--from the cell of​ an​ adult ewe. The FDA approves Rituxan, the first antibody-based therapy for​ cancer.

1998:

The first complete animal genome the C.elegans worm is​ sequenced. James Thomson​ at​ Wisconsin​ and​ John Gearhart in​ Baltimore each develop a​ technique for​ culturing embryonic stem cells.

1999:

A new medical diagnostic test will for​ the first time allow quick identification​ of​ BSE/CJD a​ rare but devastating form of​ neurologic disease transmitted from cattle to​ humans.

2000:

"Golden Rice," modified to​ make vitamin​ A. Cloned pigs are born for​ the first time in​ work done by Alan Coleman and​ his team at​ PPL, the Edinburgh-based company responsible for​ Dolly the sheep.

2018:

The sequence of​ the human genome is​ published in​ Science and​ Nature, making it​ possible for​ researchers all over the world to​ begin​ developing genetically based treatments for​ disease.

2018:

Researchers sequence the DNA of​ rice, and​ is​ the first crop to​ have its genome decoded.

2018:

The sequencing of​ the human genome is​ completed.




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