Kidney Cancer Affects Men About Twice As Often As Women

Kidney Cancer Affects Men About Twice As Often As Women



kidney cancer

kidney cancer affects men about twice as​ often as​ women. most people who contract this disease are over the​ age of​ 50.
causes
the exact causes of​ kidney cancer are not well understood. kidney cancer is​ not contagious; no one can catch any type of​ cancer from another person.
scientists have learned that smoking is​ a​ major risk factor for​ kidney cancer. smokers are twice as​ likely to​ get this disease as​ nonsmokers. several studies also suggest that the​ risk of​ developing kidney cancer may be higher than average among people with certain jobs. groups with increased risk include coke oven workers and​ those who work with asbestos. research also shows that being overweight can increase the​ chance of​ getting some types of​ cancer. kidney cancer may be one of​ them.
symptoms
the most common symptom of​ kidney cancer is​ blood in​ the​ urine. in​ some cases, a​ person can actually see the​ blood. it​ may be present one day and​ not the​ next. another symptom of​ kidney cancer is​ a​ lump or​ mass that can be felt in​ the​ kidney area. the​ tumor may cause a​ dull ache or​ pain in​ the​ back or​ side.

investigation
to diagnose kidney cancer, the​ patients personal and​ family medical history is​ taken and​ a​ thorough physical examination is​ conducted. in​ addition to​ checking temperature, pulse, blood pressure, and​ other general signs of​ health, the​ doctor usually orders blood and​ urine tests and​ one or​ more of​ the​ below mentioned exams :


treatment
if these tests suggest that a​ tumor is​ present, it​ is​ important to​ know the​ extent, or​ stage, of​ the​ disease. because kidney cancer can spread to​ the​ bones, lungs, liver, or​ brain, staging procedures may include special x-rays and​ tests to​ check these organs.
treatment for​ kidney cancer depends on the​ location and​ size of​ the​ tumor and​ whether the​ cancer has spread to​ other organs. kidney cancer is​ treated with surgery, embolization, or​ hormone therapy, biological therapy, or​ chemotherapy, which are forms of​ systemic therapy and​ rarely radiation therapy.

surgery
most kidney cancer patients have surgery, an​ operation called radical nephrectomy. in​ some cases, the​ surgeon removes the​ whole kidney or​ just the​ part of​ the​ kidney that contains the​ tumor. more often, the​ surgeon removes the​ whole kidney along with the​ adrenal gland and​ the​ fat around the​ kidney. also, nearby lymph nodes may be removed because they are one of​ the​ first places where kidney cancer spreads. finding cancer cells in​ the​ lymph nodes means there may be cancer elsewhere in​ the​ body.
radical nephrectomy is​ major surgery. for​ a​ few days after the​ operation, most patients need medicine to​ relieve pain. discomfort may make it​ difficult to​ breathe deeply, and​ patients have to​ do special coughing and​ breathing exercises to​ keep their lungs clear. patients may need iv (intravenous) feedings and​ fluids for​ several days before and​ after the​ operation. nurses will keep track of​ the​ amount of​ fluid the​ patient takes in​ and​ the​ amount of​ urine produced. the​ remaining kidney takes over the​ work of​ the​ one that was removed.
embolization
in embolization, a​ substance is​ injected to​ clog the​ renal blood vessels. the​ tumor shrinks because it​ does not get the​ blood supply it​ needs to​ grow. in​ some cases, embolization makes surgery easier. when surgery is​ not possible, this treatment may help reduce pain and​ bleeding.
embolization can cause pain, fever, nausea, or​ vomiting. these problems are treated with medicine. often, patients also require intravenous fluids.




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