History Of Computer Programming

Computer Programming and Its Rich History
If it’s the​ history of​ programming that has to​ be retold,​ then it​ is​ safe to​ begin an​ account with the​ difference engine of​ Charles Babbage way back in​ 1822 .​
Even from the​ time when computers were so simple,​ they still needed to​ have instructions so that they will be able to​ perform tasks that are inputted to​ them .​
This set of​ instructions is​ what is​ known today as​ computer programming .​

During the​ difference engine’s era,​ the​ gears needed to​ be changed manually which would then result into the​ calculations being made .​
All of​ that was changed when signals of​ electricity replaced physical motion with the​ US Government’s 1942 machine named ENIAC .​
the​ concept of​ accepting programming was also followed by this machine .​

To make programming faster,​ two vital concepts which directly influenced programming languages were developed in​ 1945 by John Von Neumann,​ who was then with the​ Institute for Advanced Study .​
the​ first concept was known as​ the​ shared-program method .​
This concept dictated that the​ hardware had to​ be non-complex and need not be hand-wired for every program .​
Intricate instructions were used to​ control this type of​ hardware which made reprogramming quicker .​

The second concept called the​ ‘conditional control transfer’ gave birth to​ code blocks which can be used even in​ different orders or​ the​ so-called subroutines .​
the​ next part of​ the​ concept was logical branching .​
With this,​ the​ concept of​ having code blocks that can be used and reused was born .​

By 1949,​ the​ Short Code language came out .​
It became the​ mother of​ electronic device computer language .​
With this language,​ the​ programmer was required to​ use 0’s and 1’s instead of​ the​ usual statements .​
1951 marked the​ appearance of​ compiler named A-0 by Grace Hopper .​
This program translated all the​ 0’s and 1’s for the​ computer .​
This gave way to​ much quicker programming .​

FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslating System) was introduced in​ 1957 which was also the​ first key language .​
It was designed for IBM for scientific computation .​
This language included the​ GOTO,​ DO and IF statements .​
FORTRAN’s forte was not business computing,​ though .​
It was a​ good program for number handling but not for business computations .​

COBOL was then developed in​ 1959 .​
It was designed as​ a​ businessman’s language .​
the​ COBOL’s program was comparable to​ an​ essay where there are 4-5 sections comprising a​ major whole .​
This made it​ easier to​ study.
The LISP language (developed for artificial intelligence study) also known as​ the​ Cambridge Polish was developed in​ 1958 by John McCarthy .​
This programming language is​ highly abstract and specific that is​ why it​ is​ still being used today .​
the​ LISP can store lists and modify them on​ its own.
In that same year,​ the​ Algol language was produced .​
This became the​ mother of​ the​ Pascal language,​ C and C++,​ and also Java .​
Algol also had the​ first proper grammar called the​ Backus-Naar form or​ BNF .​
Algol 68,​ which was the​ next version,​ was a​ harder version to​ use .​
Due to​ this difficulty,​ Pascal came into existence .​

Niklaus Wirth introduced the​ Pascal language in​ 1968 .​
It was a​ necessary means of​ teaching then .​
It was a​ combination of​ the​ following languages: ALGOL,​ FORTRAN and COBOL .​
It was also Pascal that improved the​ pointer data form .​
Its downfall was caused by its lack of​ variable groups .​
Modula-2 then appeared but C was already popular among many users .​

C by Dennis Ritchie (1972,​ used by Unix) was comparable to​ Pascal but its precursors were the​ B and BCPL .​
It is​ also being used in​ Windows,​ Linux and MacOS .​
OOP (Object Oriented Programming) was developed in​ 1970’s until the​ 80’s .​
This developed into the​ C++ language in​ 1983 .​
This language can manipulate many tasks all at​ the​ same time .​
This is​ also the​ chosen language courses in​ AP Computer Science .​
In 1987,​ Perl (Practical Extraction and Reporting Language) was developed .​
Java soon followed in​ 1994 .​
It has yet many goals to​ reach especially with its slow-running programs .​
But there are high hopes that a​ lot is​ in​ store in​ the​ future for this language .​
Microsoft has also developed VB or​ Visual Basic which uses widgets and these are now widely used .​

The future holds many more developments for computer programming .​
It may have started on​ a​ crude method but looking at​ the​ languages in​ use today,​ there were so many developments that we​ can only wonder what ‘impossibilities’ could be made possible very soon .​

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