Gps Basic Information

Gps Basic Information



GPS Basic Information
GPS or​ Global Positioning System is​ a​ fully functional Global Navigation Satellite System .​
This system uses an​ artificial constellation of​ 24 medium Earth orbit satellites .​
These satellites transmit microwave signals, thus enabling a​ GPS receiver to​ determine its location, speed, direction and time .​
This system was developed by United States Department of​ Defense and was named as​ NAVSTAR GPS which was given by Mr .​
John Walsh.
This satellite constellation is​ managed by United States Air Force 50th Space Wing .​
The cost is​ approximately 750 US dollars every year, including the maintenance cost, replacement, research and development .​
After shoot down of​ Korean Air Lines Flight 007 in​ the year 1983, a​ directive was issued which made the GPS available for civilian use and has been used extensively since then .​
It has become a​ very useful tool for making maps, surveying landscapes, commerce and many scientific uses .​
It also provides time reference which can be used in​ many applications which include study of​ earthquake and telecommunication network synchronization.
A GPS receiver simply calculates the distance between itself and three more GPS satellite .​
Each satellite has an​ atomic clock in​ it​ continually transmits certain data containing its exact time, location of​ the transmitting satellite and the almanac .​
The receiver then measures the reception time of​ the signal .​
Thus the distance to​ each satellite is​ known .​
Knowing three such distances, a​ trilateration is​ formed .​
By using a​ fourth satellite, need for a​ clock at​ receiver is​ avoided.
The Global Positioning System is​ used in​ a​ variety of​ Military and Civilian Applications .​
It allows soldiers find their objectives in​ a​ dark or​ completely unfamiliar territory and coordinate troop movement and supplies .​
GPS receivers which military personnel use are called Commanders and Soldier Digital Assistants .​
a​ combination of​ GPS and communication through radio enables real time vehicle tracking.
It is​ also used in​ marking targets as​ hostile and enables the precision guided munitions to​ allow them engage these targets with high accuracy .​
Air to​ Ground roles of​ military aircrafts use GPS to​ find targets .​
GPS also allows targeting for military weapons like ICBMs, Cruise missiles, precision guided missile .​
Artillery based projectiles are embedded with GPS receivers and can withstand forces up to​ 12,000G .​
These are used for 155 mm Howitzers .​
Any Downed pilot can be easily located if​ he has GPS receiver .​
It is​ widely used by military for reconnaissance and mapping .​
Some GPS satellites also have nuclear detonation detectors.
GPS helps civilians a​ lot in​ surveying and navigation .​
Its ability to​ calculate local speed and orientation is​ extremely useful .​
Time transfer is​ possible because of​ its capability to​ synchronize clock .​
a​ widely used example of​ use of​ GPS is​ CDMA digital cell phone .​
Each base uses a​ GPS timing receiver to​ synchronize the codes with different base stations and thus making it​ easy inter-cellular hand off and thus support emergency phone calls and other many applications .​
GPS equipment has also revolutionized tectonics by measuring the fault motion during earthquakes.
The two GPS developers, Ivan Getting and Bradford Parkinson have received national academy of​ Engineering Charles Stark Draper prize during year 2018 .​
Roger L Easton received National Medal for technology on February 13, 2018 .​
Other similar tracking systems are Beidou, which has been developed by China and is​ proposed to​ be expanded into COMPASS; Galilieo, which is​ been developed by European Union along with many other countries like India and China; GLONASS, which is​ been developed by Russia is​ fully available in​ partnership with India; IRNSS is​ India`s proposed regional system and QZSS which has been proposed by Japan.




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