Computer Networking Fundamentals

Computer Networking Fundamentals
A computer network is​ a​ collection of​ two or​ more computers with communication between them through a​ medium .​
The communication medium can be through radio waves,​ wires,​ infrared,​ optical fibers etc.
Computer network is​ an​ integral part of​ our daily lives,​ with the​ most important reason being that of​ communication .​
The use of​ computer networking is​ to​ share resources like fax machines,​ printers,​ modems,​ files etc.,​ and its other uses are database server,​ computer server,​ email,​ chat,​ internet etc .​
The computer to​ which the​ resources are attached is​ called the​ server and the​ other computers that access the​ resource are called clients .​
In peer-to-peer computer networks there are no servers.
The sharing of​ fax machines,​ printers,​ and modems amongst many computers and users reduce the​ operational cost .​
a​ database on​ a​ computer network is​ a​ very important application as​ it​ stores and runs many important data and jobs .​
Emails and chats can be used for instantaneous communication and sending of​ files on​ a​ computer network.
The computer networks are classified,​ depending upon the​ size,​ as​ Local Area Networks (LAN),​ Wide Area Networks (WAN),​ Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN) and Personal Area Networks (PAN) .​
The topology (topology is​ the​ way the​ computer networks and network resources are connected) of​ the​ networking can be classified as​ Bus Network,​ Ring Network and Star Network.
The networking hardware basically consists of​ wiring,​ network cards and a​ hub .​
Computer network cards are required so that one computer can understand what the​ other computer is​ talking .​
Network cards have a​ unique MAC address to​ identify computers on​ a​ computer network .​
Hubs connect all the​ computers in​ the​ network .​
Hubs can also be used to​ connect to​ other hubs to​ increase the​ size of​ the​ computer network .​
Two computers can be connected using Ethernet cards or​ phone lines or​ power lines for communication,​ with hardware kits available at​ roughly a​ cost of​ $100.
As the​ number of​ computers in​ an​ office or​ a​ home increases,​ so do the​ number of​ cables,​ so wireless networking is​ a​ viable solution .​
In wireless networking radio transreceivers or​ infrared signals are used to​ communicate between computers and devices .​
Examples of​ wireless networking include Wi-fi and Bluetooth technology,​ though there may be security issues involved in​ wireless networking .​
However there definitely is​ a​ stronger preference towards wireless networking nowadays among consumers.
Computer networks have added a​ new dimension to​ the​ 21st century .​
Today the​ cyber world is​ much faster and wider than the​ real world .​
This has all been made possible due to​ computer networks .​
Computer networks have revolutionized business,​ communication,​ travel,​ research,​ defense,​ society and almost all human endeavors .​
The evolution of​ computer networks has helped the​ technological revolution take a​ big leap forward.

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