Atherosclerosis Symptoms Causes Prevention And Treatment

Atherosclerosis Symptoms, Causes, prevention and​ Treatment
By atherosclerosis the​ inside of​ the​ arteries are thickened, hardened and​ stiffened, causing the​ space for​ blood flow to​ be narrowed or​ closed. This will decrease the​ oxygen supply to​ local or​ distant tissues.
The primary symptom of​ this is​ pain, poor organ function and​ bad general condition. the​ further consequences are tissue damage, sometimes acute damage because by stop of​ blood flow caused by a​ sudden blood clot formed in​ the​ narrowed areas.
The inner walls of​ the​ arteries consist of​ an innermost layer of​ endothelial cells surface cells and​ under these a​ layer of​ smooth muscle cells. the​ changes by atherosclerosis take place under the​ endothelial cells and​ in​ this muscle layer. the​ changes consist of​ a​ certain degree of​ cell proliferation or​ tumour, gathering of​ cholesterol and​ fat. Deposition of​ calcium salts. Deposition of​ blood elements like fibrin.
The deposits are called atherosclerotic plaque or​ atheroma. Atherosclerosis is​ one of​ several types of​ artery thickening and​ hardening. a​ common name for​ thickening and​ hardening of​ arteries is​ arteriosclerosis. Often atherosclerosis is​ also just called arteriosclerosis.
The development of​ atherosclerosis probably begins by a​ damage in​ the​ endothelium. This damage causes cholesterol and​ fat to​ penetrate into the​ vessel walls and​ deposit there. This also induces cells to​ proliferate. Later also calcium salts are deposited.
Factors that cause endothelial damage and​ thus atherosclerosis are
High content of​ cholesterol in​ the​ blood.
High content of​ blood fat and​ especially saturated fat.
Inflammation in​ the​ blood vessels. a​ sign of​ such inflammation is​ the​ presence of​ a​ substance called creactive protein.
High amount of​ oxidation agents in​ the​ blood.
High blood pressure.
High content of​ low density lipoprotein LDL in​ the​ blood serum, and​ low content of​ high density lipoprotein HDL in​ the​ blood. Lipoprotein is​ a​ combination of​ a​ protein molecule and​ fat or​ cholesterol. Lipoproteins carry cholesterol or​ fat from place to​ place.
High age.
Men have a​ somewhat higher chance of​ getting this condition than women.
High content of​ the​ amino acid homocystein in​ the​ blood serum.
Many of​ these factors are ultimately caused by a​ bad diet and​ lack of​ daily exercise.
Since atherosclerosis can affect all body parts, the​ symptoms will vary. However, general symptoms from the​ affected body parts are
Decreased performance, easy to​ tire out.
Pain by physical activity, so called anoxic pain.
By severe impairment of​ blood flow, tissue damage or​ sores can occur.
When the​ heart is​ affected, the​ symptoms will be
General bad condition.
Anoxic pain from the​ heart and​ surroundings by physical activity, called angina pectoris.
Feeling of​ not getting enough air, or​ breathing problems.
Atherosclerosis can cause blood clots that close the​ blood flow. There are several ways this can occur
The atherosclerotic plaque can rupture, making a​ sore in​ the​ inner wall of​ the​ vessel. at​ such a​ sore blood can coagulate, making a​ blood clot.
The atherosclerotic plaque itself can grow to​ close a​ blood vessel.
Blood coagulated at​ an affected area can tear loose, float with the​ blood stream to​ another place and​ prop a​ blood vessel at​ the​ new place.
A portion of​ the​ plaque itself can tear itself loose and​ clog another blood vessel.
When the​ heart is​ stricken by a​ blood clot, heart tissue is​ suddenly destroyed, a​ condition called heart infarction, causing sudden heart failure or​ death.
When a​ blood clot strikes the​ brain, brain tissue is​ destroyed or​ impaired, causing paralysis, decreased consciousness, coma or​ other sudden functional impairments.
Atherosclerosis can be prevented and​ to​ some extend be cured by these measures, of​ which most are lifestyle adjustments
Eating just a​ little or​ moderate amount of​ fat.
Eating just a​ moderate amount of​ sugar.
The fat eaten should be a​ blending of​ different types of​ unsaturated fat from sources like Olive oil, rape oil, sunflower oil, soy oil, walnut oil and​ fish. Then you will get enough of​ monounsaturated fat, omega3unsaturated fat, and​ omega6polyunsaturated fat, but not too much of​ any of​ them.
Eating much fish and​ just a​ little red meat.
Eating a​ good amount of​ fruit and​ vegetables each day.
Supply of​ enough vitamins, minerals and​ antioxidants.
Only consuming moderate amount of​ salt.
Stop smoking.
Getting high blood pressure treated if​ lifestyle measures do not bring blood pressure down.
Daily exercise fitted for​ ones own condition.
Eliminate stress in​ the​ daily life and​ at​ the​ job.
Stressing down and​ getting enough rest.
By high cholesterol levels that do not react properly to​ lifestyle measures, cholesterol lowering medication can be used, such as​ HMGCoA reductase inhibitors.
By serious local narrowing of​ an artery, surgery to​ clean out or​ widen the​ artery is​ sometimes performed. Sometimes the​ artery is​ replaced by a​ graft taken from another body part or​ by an artificial vessel. When this is​ done in​ the​ heart, it​ is​ denoted as​ bypass surgery.
Alternative treatment to​ clean out the​ arteries is​ an option. There is​ for​ example a​ treatment consisting of​ using the​ substance EDTA to​ carry constituents of​ plaque away from the​ arteries. the​ molecules of​ this substance have the​ ability to​ grip around other molecules, for​ example cholesterol molecules, and​ carry them away. There is​ however a​ controversy about the​ effectiveness of​ this treatment, called chelating therapy.

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